THE STRUCTURE OF SKIN
The skin is the biggest organ of the body. It has many functions:
- Protection, Prevention & Formation.
- It protects you from the environment, prevents dehydration & forms Vitamin D.
- It houses the senses of touch, temperature and pressure.
- Its structure is very specialized and by understanding it’s composition we can take better care of it.
Skin is made up of layers of cells and structural proteins embedded in a watery gel cushioned by a soft layer of fat cells. Each layer has an important function.
EPIDERMIS – has 5 Layers:
- Stratum Corneum
- Stratum Lucidum
- Stratum Granulosum
- Stratum Spinosum
- Stratum Basale
DERMIS – has 2 layers:
- Hair Shaft
- Stratum Corneum
- Sweat Pore
- Hair Follicle
- Arrector Pili Muscle
- Sebaceous Gland
- Eccrine Sweat Gland
- Cutaneous Vascular Plexes
- Adipose Tissue
The skins horny layer makes it nigh on impossible for skincare formulation molecules to penetrate it and reach the lower part – the subcutaneous layer. However, scientists, through a great deal of experimentation have managed to learn how to manipulate the chemistry and physical properties of the skin to enable active molecules to reach the down to the skins cells and make significant changes.
The way to do so is to ensure that the skin’s natural barrier, the horny layer, to be changed temporarily without any damage to it, just sufficiently to allow higher doses of effective ingredients to enhance penetrate. There are a few different methods to enhance penetration:
- The composition of skincare formulations containing Vitamin A, C, E, Coenzyme Q10. Peptides, Green tea Extract to name a few.
- Peeling – this will remove the stratum corneum until has grown again but there are many different formulations that do different things too such as encourage collagen production.
- Microdermabrasion – this will remove stratum corneum until it has grown back again but there is risk of other damage such as scarring depending on the tools used.
- Iontophoresis – enhances the direct absorption of skincare formulations without damaging or changing the stratum corneum. However, only those products that can be ionised will be absorbed.
- Ultrasound – has not been known to make any significant changes to the skin to encourage absorption at all. Studies showed that low frequency ultrasound was better than high frequency ultrasound
- Skin Needling – Using the correct depth it makes temporary micro holes to enhance absorption. These micro holes close up naturally once the treatment is completed.
Many skincare formulations, be it the most expensive or the cheapest will only ever penetrate the epidermis, the top layer of your skin. To go deeper you need other methods of penetration.
However, there are skincare formulations that are safe to use and can penetrate to the lower layers of the skin enough to ensure a rejuvenating effect.
The products and treatments we offer at our salon are revolutionary in their formulations and technologies. They have been carefully chosen to ensure that real and lasting powerhouse formulations start you on your journey to having beautiful skin for life.
Reference: Vitamin A Skin Science by Dr Des Fernandes & Dr Ernest Eiselen